The ongoing U.S. opioid crisis has currently captured the nation’s attention, but overdose deaths linked to anti-anxiety drugs, such as Xanax, can be just as dangerous and deadly. In recent years, there has been a noted surge in fatalities linked to the powerful class of medications known as benzodiazepines, which has coincided with their overwhelming overprescription.

Xanax, also known by its generic name alprazolam, is a powerful, fast-acting sedative that is prescribed to treat anxiety, as well as different kinds of phobias and panic disorders. The medication belongs to the benzodiazepines class of drugs which are known as central nervous system depressants. Xanax can only be obtained legally only through a prescription issued by a doctor or other healthcare professional.

Xanax is extremely useful for those dealing with the often debilitating effects of anxiety and various sleep disorders, but even people who take Xanax as prescribed are at risk of developing an addiction. This is why dosage and length of use require strict monitoring to avoid the high potential for abuse and addiction.

When people take Xanax more often, longer, or in different forms than prescribed, they will find themselves quickly building a tolerance, which can progress from misuse and abuse to full-blown addiction in as rapidly as just a few weeks.

How Does Xanax Work?

One of the first things you should know about the benzodiazepine drug is that it doesn’t affect everyone the same. While you may know someone who’s benefitted from its effects, it might affect you differently.

How Xanax affects you will depend on the following factors:

  • Dosage
  • Metabolism
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Mental state at the time of use

Xanax, like the majority of other benzos, works by mimicking a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which regulates feelings of anxiety by blocking the nerve signals that trigger those feelings from being able to reach the brain. GABA can help calm you down, induce sleep, or manage stress.

Xanax is chemically similar enough to GABA that it can activate the brain’s GABA receptors into overproduction in order to suppress activity in the brain and central nervous system. The brain then floods with GABA, which produces the intense feelings of relaxation and sedation. Users typically feel relief within an hour after taking, and this feeling can last for a few hours.

After a while, this binding can start to lose its effects as the GABA receptors become less sensitive, requiring heavier doses to keep working normally. The resulting dependence on Xanax can lead to worsening insomnia or anxiety symptoms, which then leads to a strong physical and psychological Xanax addiction that can be difficult to break.

When your limbic system, also known as the brain’s reward system, responds to the relaxation and anti-anxiety effects of Xanax, it may begin to confuse the drug use for life-sustaining activities. However, there are several signs and symptoms of dependence and addiction that you should be aware of if you or a loved one has been prescribed benzodiazepines.

Why Is Xanax Prescribed?

Many people may wonder why a doctor might prescribe a highly potent drug with high addiction potential like Xanax. Well, the short-acting medicine treats anxiety and panic disorders, two very widely known mental disorders. Despite its therapeutic use, Xanax abuse still can occur, leading to questions like “how many days can you take Xanax in a row?” Xanax XR helps prevent symptoms of the conditions listed before from happening. It also helps those suffering to lead a more fulfilling and satisfying life. However, that doesn’t mean it’s something you can take regularly. Xanax and other benzodiazepines should not be used for more than 14 days at a time due to the possibility of chemical dependency and addiction.  

Xanax is one of the most prescribed medications in the world for uses that affect adults and children. Xanax is used to treat panic disorders, which are associated with anxiety, to prevent the conditions from worsening. However, it’s not designed to be a long-term solution or used regularly. Xanax is meant to be used if you feel a panic attack coming on to take the edge off. The drug is responsible for stopping episodes of intense, irrational anxiety or fear when they start occuring. While many people will use the medication responsibly and not become addicted, the risk of addiction is high with benzos and can lead to Xanax addiction treatment.

Both versions of Xanax, the extended-release and instant release, quickly affect the central nervous system (CNS) to calm brain activity and one’s nerves. As a central nervous system depressant, the drug slows down vital functions, such as your heartbeat and breathing, which is why some people may use it if they have high blood pressure. While it has many positive traits, using Xanax without a prescription or in a manner your doctor did not prescribe is considered abuse. Those who abuse Xanax are at an increased risk of oversedation, overdose, and death. Similar drugs in the benzodiazepine category can cause dependence and addiction, especially when used for nonmedical reasons. 

Xanax addiction is a serious condition that requires professional medical treatment. Those abusing the drug might have questions, such as “how long after taking Xanax can I drive?” By ridding yourself of this Xanax dependence, you don’t have to question going outside and functioning in daily life. 

What Are The Signs of Xanax Addiction?

It is important to note that Xanax abuse and Xanax addiction are different things. Recreational users may still maintain some control over their use. But abuse can lead to addiction, which is when no matter what the user does, the pull of Xanax is stronger than leaving it alone.

It can be difficult to spot the signs of a Xanax addiction while it is still in its early stages even if you are the one who happens to be misusing it, and often the problem will not be recognized until it is too late and Xanax abuse has escalated and progressed to addiction. Signs of Xanax addiction that may seem obvious in hindsight can be easy to miss if you are not looking for them.

However, there are many physical and mental signs that point towards a developing addiction to Xanax, including:

  •  Memory problems
  •  Withdrawal symptoms when not using
  •  Frequent periods of confusion
  •  Paranoia
  •  Depression
  •  Headaches
  •  Nausea and vomiting
  •  Tremors
  •  Excessive drowsiness
  •  Noticeably altered sleep patterns
  •  Swollen arms and legs
  •  Chronic dry mouth

As someone becomes more and more dependent on Xanax to function—prioritizing obtaining and using it over nearly everything else in their life—they begin to exhibit abnormal behavior.  These red flags are based on the fact that Xanax has become the driving force behind their decisions. These signs are associated not only with an addiction to Xanax but also with substance use disorders in general.

Some of these behavioral signs of Xanax addiction include:

  •  Taking Xanax more often or at a higher dose than prescribed
  •  Forging prescriptions to get more Xanax
  •  “Doctor shopping” to get more prescriptions for Xanax
  •  Attempting to justify Xanax abuse
  •  Needing to take Xanax to perform basic daily functions
  •  Lack of personal hygiene
  •  Using Xanax in ways it was not intended (crushing, snorting, etc.)
  •  Loss of interest in previously enjoyed hobbies and activities
  •  Lying about or hiding Xanax abuse
  •  A noticeable decline in performance at work or in school
  •  Legal or financial difficulties resulting from Xanax abuse
  •  Being unable to stop taking Xanax despite wanting to

These behaviors are all signs of Xanax addiction, or at the very least, Xanax dependency and abuse that is in very real danger of progressing to full-blown addiction. If you have observed these signs in yourself or someone you care about, it is vital that you seek out professional addiction recovery treatment as soon as possible, ideally starting with medical detoxification to flush the Xanax from your system and safely handle Xanax withdrawal.

How Does Xanax Impact the Brain?

All benzodiazepine medications, including Xanax, impact a neurotransmitter called gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). Many central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including barbiturates, sedative-hypnotic sleep drugs, and alcohol, manage how rapidly GABA is absorbed into the brain.

GABA regulates how rapidly neurons communicate with each other in the brain, typically by inhibiting or reducing how often neurons fire. Rapid firing can trigger many conditions, from a sense of low-level dread or a seizure. With enough GABA available to the brain, however, these reactions calm down.

Drugs like benzodiazepines act like GABA and bind to the GABA receptors in the brain, allowing the naturally produced GABA to be more available. With more GABA available, the brain relaxes, the body’s reactions slow down, and a sense of pleasant relaxation or sleepiness will wash over the person.

These reactions are important on an as-needed basis for people who have serious medical conditions. However, this sedation is also addictive, and it can lead to mental and physical harm.

Serious Mental Effects When Abused

Xanax was designed as an anxiety and panic disorder treatment alongside cognitive behavioral therapy. Taking this benzodiazepine by itself can alleviate short-term symptoms of anxiety, panic attacks, or insomnia, but it will not manage these conditions overall.

Because Xanax quickly affects how the brain functions, many people begin to take the drug too often. They feel like they need it to avoid suffering.

Short-term mental effects: Because Xanax leads to feeling sedated, mental effects may include forgetfulness, sleepiness, slowed thinking, and trouble learning. Paradoxical insomnia may be a symptom of taking Xanax more than a few days in a row. Lightheadedness and daytime drowsiness are also common side effects of taking this drug, even if you take it as prescribed. A two-week study in which participants took 0.5 mg (milligrams) of Xanax did not find significant changes in memory in the short term, but memory loss is possible in the long term.

Long-term mental effects: There are few long-term studies on the risks of chronic Xanax abuse and memory loss, but if the drug works on the brain in a similar pattern as alcohol, periods of intoxication may lead to blackouts, during which memories do not move from short-term to long-term storage.

A Harvard Health study involving 2,000 older adults with Alzheimer’s disease and a control group of 7,000 without dementia found that risk for Alzheimer’s increased 32 percent among those who had taken Xanax and other benzodiazepine sedatives for three to six months at any point in their lives.

Among those who took the drug consistently for more than six months, the risk rose to a shocking 84 percent.

What is Involved in Xanax Addiction Treatment?

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) defines addiction as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is treatable though not curable. Addiction treatment programs can be designed to fit the needs of the client. They vary by the client and substance(s) used as well as factors such as how long the person has been in active addiction.

Recovering Xanax users will need to start a medical detoxification at a facility equipped to oversee this process. A medically-monitored detox handled by a health care professional is necessary to rid the body of the toxins and to help manage painful and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. Medications used in Xanax detox include a longer-acting benzodiazepine, such as Valium. Other medications also may be administered to treat other conditions that arise during the withdrawal and post-withdrawal period, including:

  • Anticonvulsants – which are typically only given in the case of someone experiencing seizures during the Xanax withdrawal process. However, they have been found to be useful for treating the general symptoms of Xanax withdrawal.
  • Antidepressants – like Prozac and Zoloft, which are serotonin reuptake inhibitors and are used to help curb symptoms of depression, as well as suicidal thoughts and behavior.
  • Melatonin – which is an over-the-counter supplement used to help induce and regulate sleep. Melatonin can be used to help with the symptoms of insomnia and anxiety as a workaround to the tolerance someone will have built up to Xanax.

After detox is complete, the next step is to enter an addiction treatment program that allows recovering users to come face to face with their addiction to Xanax to understand its causes and how they can work toward recovery.

blister packs of white pills

A drug rehabilitation center offers a supportive network of medical staff as well as addiction counselors, therapists, and others who are trained to support recovering users on their journey to sobriety. Such support at the beginning stages of recovery as well as throughout the process helps to ensure that the recovery attempt is successful.

Recovering Xanax users will have to learn or re-learn coping strategies and essential life skills as they manage their disease. Behavioral therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), can assist them in their journey to achieve mental and emotional stability as they rebuild their lives. CBT helps clients recognize thinking patterns that are inaccurate, negative, or distorted and teaches them coping skills and strategies to correct those patterns.

These tools help them identify and process their thoughts and emotions and respond to challenges in effective ways that support them during recovery. Treatment also can incorporate 12-step fellowship programs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous, motivational therapy, trauma therapy, and individual counseling and group counseling.

Inpatient or residential treatment, which can last anywhere from 28 days to 90 days in a facility, depending on the program, uses diverse therapies to help users work through, and overcome their dependence on addictive substances. According to NIDA, however, addiction recovery treatment generally requires at least 90 days in length for it to be at all effective in preventing relapse.

Outpatient therapy can help Xanax users who are in the early stages of their addiction or have a mild case of it.

This kind of therapy does not require an on-site stay at a treatment center, which means there is more flexibility to incorporate treatment into established schedules, such as for work or school. Outpatient clients are still required to attend structured sessions three to five times a week or more, depending on the person’s situation. Outpatient clients are completely responsible for keeping their environment free of any negative influences that can set back their recovery.

Recovering Xanax users also can benefit from aftercare services that help them reach their recovery goals and avoid relapse. After treatment is completed, recovering users may struggle with depression, anxiety, and other post-acute withdrawal symptoms (known as PAWS) for months or years down the road.

Life After Xanax Addiction

Since benzos like Xanax are human-made drugs, our bodies and brains don’t have the necessary mechanism to process them, which is why withdrawals are often severe and potentially deadly. Once you get past the acute stage of Xanax withdrawal, you’d like to assume you’re in the clear. Unfortunately, that couldn’t be any further from the truth. Once you stop using Xanax and are sober for a week or two, you still have your work cut out for you in the coming weeks, months, and even years. Please don’t let that discourage you. Thousands of people overcome their addictions each year. With the right help, you can become one of them. 

Post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) is one of the biggest challenges you’ll face post-addiction, but with the right help, it’s something you can overcome. In the earliest days of sobriety, you’ll face boredom and an influx of emotions that Xanax essentially numbed. For this reason, surrounding yourself with others on the same journey can help you overcome this feeling of being stuck. 

Attending 12-step programs, therapy, and keeping your mind occupied by picking up a new hobby are all positive means of living after Xanax addiction. Because of its status as a prescription drug, many people forget that it can be a potentially dangerous drug. Although it’s beneficial for most people, others will become victims of Xanax addiction. 

Similar to how alcohol affects the body, Xanax users may feel mentally impaired, have poor coordination, and may struggle with performing mechanical tasks such as driving or operating machinery. Slurred speech, dizziness, drowsiness, and lethargy are also other effects that make this drug dangerous to abuse.

Is Xanax Cut With Other Drugs?

When Xanax is legally prescribed and obtained through a licensed pharmacy, there is no potential for it to be cut with other medications. There is an illicit market for Xanax, however.

Any substance purchased in illicit markets comes with the risk of contamination or deadly additives. Even pills that look like the prescription products they are being sold as may still contain fillers and dangerous substances, and they may not even contain any of the actual drugs.

Fentanyl: Unfortunately, there have been reports of fake Xanax being sold on illicit markets, sometimes with deadly results. Some consumers have been sold counterfeit Xanax tablets that have been cut with fentanyl, a powerful and dangerous opiate that is 50 times more potent than morphine. People who took the fake tablets suffered heart attacks and heart failure as well as respiratory and nervous system distress.

Fentanyl has been an increasingly popular agent for drug dealers to use as a cutting agent because it is cheap and easy to obtain. It produces an intense high, giving the illusion of a quality product.

Opioids: When Xanax is mixed with opioids, such as heroin or fentanyl, it will amplify the sedative effects of both drugs, increasing the chance of overdose and addiction.

This makes for a dangerous combination because both classes of drugs can depress the respiratory system, and the combined effect increases the chances of overdose and respiratory distress.

More than 130 people die in the U.S. every day due to opioid overdoses, many of which are caused by polysubstance abuse.

Stimulants: When Xanax is cut with drugs that have stimulant effects, such as cocaine and methamphetamine, users will experience a “speedball” effect. The combined substances produce both the sedative effects of Xanax as well as the energetic and euphoric effects of the other drug.

It is also common for Xanax users to mix the benzodiazepine with alcohol, prescription opioids, and heroin, which is incredibly dangerous.

Alcohol, in particular, has what is known as a synergistic effect with Xanax. This means that they build off of each other to increase the intensity of their respective effects. Mixing Xanax with alcohol increases your risk of overdose, which causes severe sedation, depression, slowed breathing, hypotension, fainting, muscle weakness, or even a coma.

It is also possible to overdose fatally on Xanax. The symptoms of a Xanax overdose include:

  •  Hypertension
  •  Psychosis
  •  Suicidal Behavior
  •  Memory loss
  •  Hallucinations
  •  Delirium
  •  Seizures
  •  Panic attacks
  •  Rebound insomnia
  •  Rebound anxiety

Tonic-clonic seizures involve two phases. The tonic phase comes with sudden muscle contractions where the limbs are pulled in, close to the body. The clonic phase comes immediately after with violent convulsions. Deaths associated with seizures are usually due to them causing fatal accidents. However, other serious medical complications can occur.

Rebound anxiety and insomnia are caused by the central nervous system going into overdrive without the suppressing effects provided by Xanax. Now in withdrawal, the nervous system goes into shock and hyperactivity, causing old symptoms of insomnia and anxiety that the Xanax had been treating to re-emerge.

The difference between regular anxiety and insomnia and the rebound variety is that the hyperactive nervous system makes these symptoms significantly stronger than they may have been before someone started abusing Xanax. Rebound insomnia can keep someone awake for days on end, and rebound anxiety can cause debilitating panic attacks.

Beginning Xanax Use in Pregnancy

Some women may get pregnant before they are diagnosed with a problem that requires taking Xanax. In many cases, they can take the medication if it is crucial to their well-being.

Some experts caution that it is possible for the unborn baby to absorb Xanax during pregnancy. Mothers who are nursing may also pass it to their children.

The Food and Drug Administration says newly pregnant women should not be prescribed Xanax for their first trimester because it is not considered a “drug of urgency.”

When prescribing Xanax to a pregnant patient, doctors may give her the smallest dose necessary to assist with whatever anxiety she is facing. A doctor may even decide to slowly taper their patient before having the baby so the child’s chance of experiencing withdrawal symptoms at birth is reduced.

Women can also help by letting their obstetrician know about their prescription medication use, so their nurse and pediatrician are aware of this after the baby is born. Like an adult, a baby can become tolerant of Xanax in the womb.

What about women who have been taking Xanax before pregnancy? The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) mentions a few pointers women and their doctors should know.

  • Little is still known about the effects of some medication (over-the-counter or prescribed) on pregnant women because it is not ethical to use pregnant women as subjects for scientific research.
  • Pregnant women should discuss everything they take with their doctor, including vitamins, supplements, over-the-counter drugs, or prescription medication. This information will allow doctors to make better decisions for the mother and child.
  • Some anti-anxiety medications and antidepressants still need to be researched for their effects on a child.

Because of this, women who are planning to have children should inform their doctors while they are trying. The doctor may advise women to not take Xanax during this time and recommend other approaches.

Xanax Abuse Statistics

  • There were more than 50 million prescriptions written for Xanax in 2013.
  • An estimated 70 percent of teenagers with Xanax addictions reported as obtaining it from the medicine cabinet in their homes.
  • More than 30 percent of opioid-involved overdoses also involved benzodiazepines like Xanax.
  • Between 2002 and 2015, overdose deaths resulting from benzodiazepines, including Xanax, have more than quadrupled.
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