The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) publishes that about 16 million Americans struggle with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Alcohol is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive substances in the world. Most people can drink it safely and without cause for concern. It is, however, an addictive substance, and problematic use can lead to both alcohol dependence and the onset of alcoholism.
Addiction is a brain disease; it changes the brain’s chemistry and the way the brain processes reward. When a person drinks alcohol, several of the brain’s neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers that help to regulate mood and central nervous system functions, are affected. Addiction is also classified as a behavioral disease with social implications.
As a complex disease, alcoholism has many potential contributing factors, including genetics. NIAAA reports that around half of the risk of alcoholism can be linked to genetics, meaning that the disease is considered to be at least partially hereditary and can run in families. This does not mean that just because you have a parent or sibling who struggles with alcoholism, you will, too. It just means that there may be certain risk factors, or genes, involved.
Family history can indeed contribute to the onset of alcoholism, but as the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) publishes, this is not the whole story. Environmental factors, personal metabolism and biological aspects, and social influences can all contribute to the development of the disorder.
Alcohol consumption and drinking have played a role in society for centuries. Alcohol has a long and storied history.
In the early 1900s, excessive drinking and alcoholism were often linked with the decline of society. People struggling with addiction were often considered morally weak and sinners who couldn’t control themselves.
In about the 1930s, popular perception began to shift some. The American Association for Cancer Research publishes that the Research Council on Problems of Alcohol was established to try and figure out a scientific link for the effects of alcohol on humans. The scholar E.M. Jellinek was the executive director and became the first director of the Center of Alcohol Studies at Yale in the early 1940s. Jellinek was instrumental in establishing alcoholism as a disease with scientific considerations, per the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.
In the 1940s, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was founded, and one of its main premises is that individuals are not in control of their drinking. Research into alcoholism and its genetic and potential heritability has been ongoing for decades since then.
One of the most common forms of research into the family link for alcoholism comes in the form of identical twin studies and study of the human genome, or genomic medicine. Identical twins share the same 23 chromosomes and can, therefore, provide insight into the heritability of diseases and traits.
One of the largest twin studies on alcoholism done to date was performed by researchers at the University of Queensland and the University of Washington, Psychology Today reports. This study showed a genetic predisposition of 50 percent in male identical twins and 30 percent in female twins. It is still held that genetics accounts for about half of the risk of alcoholism. Environmental, behavioral, and social aspects are thought to account for the other half.
The debate between nature versus nature in the development of diseases like alcoholism rages on. Specific genes are being mapped today to try and pinpoint the “addiction gene,” and whether or not there is one gene that will prove to be connected to all people struggling with alcoholism. It believed that genetic, environmental, social, and behavioral factors all contribute to the onset of addiction and alcoholism.
Again, just because a family member struggles with alcoholism does not mean it is inevitable that you also will. The risk of alcoholism is considered just as much environmental, social, and behavioral as it is genetic and heritable.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) publishes that if a parent battles alcoholism, the odds of their children also struggling with the disease at some point are increased two to four times over the general public, but less than half of these children will have alcoholism. The journal Biological Research on Addiction reports that genetics do play a role in the heritability of alcoholism; however, no single gene is involved. Rather, many genetic variants and the way they interact with the environment and each other likely contribute. Biological factors such as metabolism, how your brain and body process reward, and how alcohol affects you personally can all influence drinking patterns and potential issues with alcohol.
There are several things you can do to minimize your potential risk of developing alcoholism, especially if it runs in your family. NIAAA publishes that one of the biggest risk factors for developing AUD is a pattern of binge and excessive drinking on a regular basis. Drinking in moderation and limiting your alcohol consumption can help to decrease the odds of developing alcohol dependence and also for alcoholism.
High levels of stress in the environment, a lack of family support and engagement, and peer pressure can make a person more susceptible to engaging in patterns of problematic drinking that can lead to alcoholism. Lowering stress levels naturally and surrounding yourself with people who are supportive of sober habits or moderate drinking can be beneficial.
Mixing alcohol with other drugs can also compound the risk of developing alcohol dependence. Alcoholism has many contributing factors. Ongoing research continues to unveil new aspects of this highly treatable disease.
If your loved one is going through an addiction, know that not all hope is lost. It is important that they receive help now. There’s no need to delay. You don’t have to do this alone, and you’re just a phone call away from getting help. Learn more about the benefits of personalized treatment at a private facility by calling Delphi Behavioral Health Group today at 844-208-4761 to explore your options.
Treatment programs at Delphi Behavioral Health Group’s facilities provide unique therapy and counseling methods for certain addictions. They are designed to allow you to receive the daily support of the facility’s staff and your loved ones when you return home. Our treatment centers provide just what’s needed for community, counseling, and support throughout the day so clients can apply the lessons they learn to their lives everyday life. Give us a call to discuss your loved one’s options today.
Alcohol Use Disorder. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. from https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders
(2008). Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. from https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-use-disorders/genetics-alcohol-use-disorders
(April 2015). Family History and Genetics. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. from https://www.ncadd.org/about-addiction/family-history-and-genetics
(May 2013). Genetics and Alcoholism. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. from https://www.nature.com/articles/nrgastro.2013.86
(2007). ALDH2, ADH1B, and ADH1C Genotypes in Asians: a Literature Review. Alcohol Research & Health. from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17718397
(September 2016). GABRA2 Alcohol Dependence Risk Allele is Associated with Reduced Expression of Chromosome 4p12 GABAA Subunit Genes in Human Neural Cultures. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4558268/
(December 2010). Association of CHRM2 Polymorphisms with Severity of Alcohol Dependence. Genes, Brain and Behavior. from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2010.00663.x
(July 2007). Alcohol Abuse is Hereditary. Medical News Today. from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/75738.php
(July 1979). Historical Overview of Alcohol and Alcoholism. American Association for Cancer Research. from http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/39/7_Part_2/2822.full.pdf
(2016). Re-Introducing Bunky at 125: E. M. Jellinek's Life and Contribution to Alcohol Studies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. from https://www.jsad.com/doi/pdf/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.375
(June 2013). Are Alcoholism and Addiction in Our Blood? Psychology Today from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-almost-effect/201306/are-alcoholism-and-addiction-in-our-blood
(2011). Genetics of Alcoholism. National Institute on Drug Abuse. from https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/files/edenberg_speaker_formt.pdf
(2013). Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorders. Biological Research on Addiction. from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123983350000492