Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) are two types of psychotherapy that help clients learn how their thoughts are influencing their emotions and behaviors. They provide valuable skills to make changes that produce a better, more satisfying life.
Today, CBT is one of the most popular types of talk therapy. It’s evidence-based treatment that helps people overcome emotional issues by helping them discover and change faulty or distorted thoughts or beliefs.
Primarily, CBT works with the way you perceive your reality, because your perception frequently determines the way you think and act.
DBT is an evidence-based approach that’s similar to CBT. Rather than simply pointing out thoughts or emotions that are faulty or unproductive, DBT encourages clients to experience these emotions and work through them. It teaches clients skills that they can implement at the time they’re experiencing negative emotions.
Psychologist Marsha Linehan founded DBT to boost the effectiveness of CBT. Furthermore, it placed a greater focus on the emotions and social aspects, and it helped people better regulate their emotions. It’s geared toward individuals that are experiencing more severe, unstable, or harmful behaviors.
Let’s take a further look at each of these individual treatment modalities.
Otherwise known as “talk therapy” or psychotherapy, CBT enables therapists to help clients become more aware of the thoughts and feelings that are occurring in the subconscious. Therefore, they can learn to identify negative or faulty behaviors, and start using this knowledge to change for the better.
CBT is based on this assumption: Thoughts influence beliefs, and beliefs influence behavior. The process of monitoring, identifying, and changing irrational or unhelpful thoughts can be treated over time. In other words, patients can see the types of thoughts and belief patterns that are causing them to feel or act in a certain way.
With CBT, a talented therapist can effectively help someone experience fewer negative emotions within a handful of sessions. Treatment is short-term, structured, solution-oriented, and focused on the present.
CBT is used to treat various mental health disorders, including:
CBT works well for all ages, and it can work face-to-face, online, or via video.
DBT focuses on the psychosocial aspects of therapy, which essentially involves the way someone interacts with others in their relationships and various environments. More specifically, it focuses on the psychosocial aspects of family relationships, since those closest to a person usually cause them the most emotional pain.
Primarily intended for those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), DBT is also helpful for those with substance abuse disorders (SUDs), eating disorders, and depression.
Here’s one underlying assumption of DBT: People are suffering because they’re unable to regulate their emotions. Clients may not have caused their issues, but in order to better regulate emotions and enjoy a better life, they must take responsibility for their own treatment. Rather than focusing on who’s to blame, a DBT therapist will help them acquire the skills to lead the kind of lives they truly want. This type of compassionate treatment is proving to be quite effective.
Since Linehan wasn’t satisfied with the way CBT treated individuals with suicidal tendencies, she came up with more treatment interventions that prompted clients to accept themselves, their emotions, their thoughts, and others.
Here are the four main components of DBT:
DBT uses mindfulness techniques to help clients learn how to get out of their heads and into the present moment. Frequently, clients are stuck in the past, which causes their irrational thoughts. So practicing mindfulness allows them to observe their thoughts and emotions, describe them, and participate in them in the moment. This tactic tends to help them regulate their emotional states better
Interpersonal effectiveness is utilized because individuals struggling with BPD are known for having poor boundaries. DBT helps them learn how to tune into their wants and needs, assertively ask for them, and set appropriate boundaries
When you accept that pain may come your way, it’s therapeutic. DBT helps clients learn how to skillfully bear pain through various techniques, such distracting yourself, soothing yourself, and improving the moment
Emotional regulation can help treat individuals who struggle with feelings of anger, depression, and anxiousness. DBT teaches them how to better regulate their emotions by identifying obstacles that have kept them stuck and increasing the positive events in their lives
CBT and DBT are certainly similar in various ways, as DBT grew out of CBT. Both types of therapy allow a therapist to explore a client’s past and see the kind of lens they’re perceiving in their present moment. However, a deep exploration of the client’s history won’t be the major focus, as it is in Freudian psychoanalysis. Instead, there will be an emphasis on modifying faulty or irrational cognitive thoughts and replacing them with more positive, productive ones.
However, DBT clients both meet with a therapist individually and attend group therapy sessions. In these group meetings, the four components above are taught more at length, so clients get to practice these skills in a safe environment.
Another difference is that DBT doesn’t encourage clients to deny their emotions. A CBT therapist may tell a client, “You are not your emotions, so you don’t have to feel those negative ones anymore.” But a DBT therapist may say, “It’s alright to feel this negative emotion right now. Go ahead and feel the depression. Accept that it’s real for you right now. Acknowledge it. Be mindful of it. However, don’t stay there. Once you’re felt and acknowledged it, become mindful that you’re safe because you’re not that feeling. Then let it go.”
Both CBT and DBT use an approach that’s rooted in cognitive behavior, and they both look at the target behaviors that clients want to reach. Both collaborate with the client to create goals together, so everyone involved is moving toward growth. Both CBT and DBT are helpful tools that will help you address, overcome, or regulate emotional challenges.
Specifically, these forms of therapy can help you accomplish the following goals:
If you’re in need of behavior therapy, both CBT and DBT can be helpful, as they’re both evidence-based ways to help individuals with a range of mental health issues.
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American Psychological Association. (n.d.). What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy? from https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/cognitive-behavioral.aspx
Grohol, John M. (2018, October 8). Psych Central. What’s the Difference Between CBT and DBT? from https://psychcentral.com/lib/whats-the-difference-between-cbt-and-dbt/