Benzodiazepines fall into different categories, including short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting benzodiazepines. Drugs in these categories work for carying lengths of time and produce different effects on the body.
Benzodiazepines are some of the most widely prescribed sedative drugs in the United States. Thislass of drugs works on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the brain to slow down how fast neurons fire.
There are about 15 different types of benzodiazepine drugs in the world.
Only a few have been approved for any medical use, and even fewer of those are legal to prescribe in the U.S.
While some benzodiazepines have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), they are still Schedule IV per the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), so they require a prescription from a medical professional. Taking any benzodiazepine without a prescription is an abuse of the drug.
GABA is an important neurotransmitter that regulates communication between brain cells. Without enough GABA in the brain, you may feel anxious, experience a panic attack, or have a seizure in the most extreme cases.
Benzodiazepines act on the GABA-A receptors specifically, so your brain’s naturally produced GABA can remain bioavailable and slow down signaling. For people with seizure disorders, this prevents or stops many seizures.
More often, for people who experience anxiety or panic, short-acting benzodiazepines will stop mania, psychosis, and panic attacks.
They will also manage insomnia or reduce anxiety about specific situations like surgery or social engagements.
This class of central nervous system (CNS) depressants was developed as a replacement for barbiturates, other sedative-classified drugs with an adverse action on the brain. Barbiturates were found to be addictive and dangerous.
Different types of benzodiazepines have different lengths of action. For instance, short-acting benzodiazepines bind to the brain quickly, have a short half-life, and are metabolized out of the body rapidly.
Benzodiazepines fall into the following categories:
aprazolam, diazepam, estazolam
clonazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam
Benzodiazepines are often prescribed as a short-term treatment for insomnia. The most popular short-acting benzodiazepines to treat insomnia in the U.S. include:
Sometimes, a person with chronic insomnia associated with an anxiety disorder will benefit from a higher level of sedation, which can help them sleep and keep them calm during the day. Benzodiazepines with a longer duration of action work best in this case. These medications include:
Valium, Klonopin, and Tranxene are sometimes also used as anticonvulsants since their action is longer than that of other benzodiazepines. Librium is sometimes administered off-label to manage alcohol withdrawal. Other short-acting benzodiazepines may treat panic attacks or general anxiety that is triggered in specific situations.
No benzodiazepines are intended to be taken for more than two weeks except in some instances of seizure disorders. Many chronic seizure conditions like epilepsy have more targeted medications for treatment, and benzodiazepines are still intended for short-term use for these conditions.
When prescribed by an overseeing physician, benzodiazepines are safe to take in specific doses. However, the body begins to develop a tolerance to this type of sedative very quickly. After two to four weeks of use, the original dose of any benzodiazepine will be much less effective.
People with anxiety and insomnia are encouraged to seek therapy to manage the symptoms of their chronic condition, and they may receive other, more specific prescription drug interventions. Those with epilepsy should take other medications that are better for long-term symptom management.
People going through alcohol withdrawal should work with a detox and rehabilitation program. They may take benzodiazepines to taper off alcohol abuse, but this is a short-term treatment.
Unfortunately, because benzodiazepines are widely prescribed, they are also widely abused. This has led to an epidemic alongside opioid abuse in the U.S.
According to a 2018 survey, about one in eight American adults used benzodiazepines in the prior year; this represents about 12.8 percent of the population, which rose from previous survey years, suggesting that there are more benzodiazepines in medicine cabinets all over the country.
Misuse of these drugs accounted for about 17 percent of benzodiazepine use, according to the new survey. Misuse was highest among young adults, 18 to 25 years old. The study also found significant benzodiazepine use among older adults, ages 50 to 64.
People who abuse benzodiazepines without a prescription were most likely to get them from a friend or relative — either by asking for them or stealing the drugs.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports that about 30 percent of opioid overdoses in the U.S. involve benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines can increase the effects of opioids on dangerous levels that lead to physical harm.
One of the most dangerous benzodiazepines is flunitrazepam, known by the brand name Rohypnol. This benzodiazepine is still prescribed for limited uses, such as part of a larger narcolepsy treatment plan. However, it is more notorious as a date rape drug. When slipped into a drink, especially alcohol, a dose of Rohypnol can cause someone to black out. If they remain awake or pass out, one thing for sure is that they will not remember anything from that time.
Under the Date Rape Prevention Act, there are federal penalties for using flunitrazepam without a prescription, obtaining a false prescription, or abusing the drug outside of the prescription, especially by administering it to others. This benzodiazepine is 10 times more potent than Valium, which is already a long-acting benzodiazepine.
Another harmful benzodiazepine that is increasingly abused in the U.S. is etizolam. This sedative is not regulated under the Controlled Substances Act, and it is not legal to use in the U.S. because as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved it. This potent medication is only legal for prescription use in Japan, Italy, and India; no other country uses it for prescription treatments. With more online sales of drugs all over the world, etizolam is increasingly found in the U.S. because it is purchased from illicit distributors.
Etizolam may be found in tablet form, marked 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, or 1 mg. If these drugs are purchased online, there is no way to know how much etizolam is actually in any tablet, if the substance has been mixed with other harmful chemicals like laundry detergent, or if the drug contains other intoxicating drugs like fentanyl, which can cause an overdose or death.
Powdered versions of etizolam are also available online for illegal sale. Powders are even more likely to contain adulterants or diluents.
If you take benzodiazepines as prescribed by your doctor and want to stop, you should work with them to safely taper your prescription down until your body is no longer dependent on the drug. Benzodiazepines quickly lead to physical dependence if you take them consistently, even if you do so as prescribed. Withdrawal symptoms will occur if you try to quit taking this medication suddenly, without help or oversight, and withdrawal from benzodiazepines can be dangerous.
If you abuse benzodiazepines, you will need medical supervision to detox safely from them. If you follow medical detox with a rehabilitation program, such as behavioral therapy, it will help you manage the cravings and triggers to help prevent relapse in the future.
(October 29, 2013) Benzodiazepines. Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR). Retrieved March 2019 from from http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/benzos.asp
(2017) Benzodiazepines. Drugs of Abuse: A DEA Resource Guide, 2017 Edition; U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Retrieved March 2019 from from http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/benzos.asp
(2003) Table I. Pharmacokinetics of Benzodiazepines and Non-Benzodiazepine Hypnotics. Medscape.com. Retrieved March 2019 from from https://www.medscape.com/content/2003/00/45/67/456734/456734_tab.html
(March 7, 2019) The Benefits and Risks of Benzodiazepines. Medical News Today. Retrieved March 2019 from from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/262809.php
(December 17, 2018) Study Finds Increasing Use, and Misuse, of Benzodiazepines. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Retrieved March 2019 from from https://www.psychiatry.org/newsroom/news-releases/study-finds-increasing-use-and-misuse-of-benzodiazepines
https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/benzodiazepines-opioids from https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/benzodiazepines-opioids
(March 2018) Benzodiazepines and Opioids. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved March 2019 from from https://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/benzodiazepines-opioids
(October 29, 2013) Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol). Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR). Retrieved March 2019 from from http://www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/rohypnol.asp
(October 2018) Etizolam. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Retrieved March 2019 from from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/etizolam.pdf